The Kalendarium Hortense was published by John Evelyn in 1683. It contains instructions for what a gardener should do throughout the year. The excerpt below is the list of what is to be done in the "Orchard and Olitory1 Garden" for the month of January.
Trench the Ground, and make it ready for the Spring: prepare also Soil, and use it where you have occasion: Dig Borders, &c. uncover as yet Roots of Trees, where Ablaqueation2 is requisite.
Plant Quick-sets, and Transplant Fruit-Trees, if not finish'd: Set Vines, and begin to prune the old: Prune the branches of Orchard Fruit-Trees; especially the long planted, and that towards the decrease: but for such as are newly planted, they need not be disbranched till the Sap begins to stir, that so the wound may be healed with the Sear, and Stub, which our frosts do frequently leave: In this work cut off all the shoot of August, unless the nakedness of the place incline you to spare it: You may now begin to Nail and trim your Wall-fruit3, and Espaliers4.
Cleane Trees of Moss, &c. the Weather moist.
Gather Cyors5 for Graffs before the Buds sprout; and about the latter end graff them in the Stock, Pears, Cherries, and Plums, and remove your Kernel-stocks to more commodious distances in your Nursery, cutting off the Top root. Set Beans, Pease, &c.
Sow also (if you please) for early Caully-flowers.
Sow Chervil, Lettuce, Radish, and other (more delicate) Salletings; if you will raise in the Hot-bed.
In over-wet, or hard weather cleanse, mend, sharpen, and prepare Garden Tools.
Turn up your Bee-hives, and sprinkle them with a little warm and sweet Wort; do it dexterously.
1 - Olitory: of or pertaining to, or produced in, a kitchen garden.
2 - Ablaqueation: The act or process of laying bare the roots of trees to expose them to the air and water.
3 - Wall fruit: trees trained against a wall.
4 - Espaliers: trees or shrubs that are trained to grow in a flat plane against a wall, often in a symmetrical pattern. Also, a trellis or other framework on which an espalier is grown.
5 - Cyors: Probably cions - Detached shoots or twigs containing buds from a woody plant, used in grafting.